Isotype Controls

An isotype control is an antibody of the same isotype as a primary antibody with no relevant specificity to the target antigen. Isotype controls are used as negative controls to help differentiate non-specific background signal from specific antibody signal. Their main application is in flow cytometry, but they can also be helpful in immunohistochemistry. Selecting an appropriate isotype control is necessary for successful experiments that effectively decrease non-specific background signal. Background staining associated with a primary antibody is mainly caused by three factors: 1. binding to Fc receptors on target cells, 2. non-specific antibody interactions with cellular proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, and 3. cell autofluorescence. These factors differ significantly depending on the isotype of the primary antibody and the target cell type. As a result, isotype controls typically must be matched (by species and isotype, including heavy and light chains) with the primary antibody being used so that the level of specific staining by the primary antibody may be accurately determined. If using directly labeled primary antibodies, it is recommended that the isotype control is also conjugated with the same label as the test antibody.

Whole molecule immunoglobulins may also be used as a control, and are also useful as a standard, blocking agent, or coating protein in a variety of assays including ELISA, immunoblotting (Western and Dot blots), immunoprecipitation, immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis. To use whole molecule immunoglobulins, select purified antibodies from the same isotype and species as the primary antibody being used.
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Product Description Host Target Species Applications Imgs / Refs Size Product # Price
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10405 $125.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A WB, IHC (P, F), FACS, IP, Ctrl 00 100 µg MA1-10406 $125.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A WB, IHC (P, F), FACS, IP, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10407 $125.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10413 $190.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10415 $215.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10418 $125.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10419 $125.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, APC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10420 $215.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10421 $190.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10424 $190.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10425 $215.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, PerCP conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10426 $215.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10427 $125.00
Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10433 $125.00
Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10435 $190.00
Mouse IgG3 Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10436 $190.00
Mouse IgM Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug MA1-10438 $125.00
Rat IgG1 Isotype Control Rat N/A IHC (F), FACS, ELISA, Ctrl 00 100 tests MA1-90035 $245.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Mouse N/A IHC (F), IHC (P), FACS, Ctrl 00 100 tests MA1-90550 $340.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Rat N/A IHC (F), FACS, Ctrl 00 100 µg MA1-90907 $275.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control Rat N/A FACS, ELISA, Ctrl 00 500 ug MA1-90911 $425.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse All WB, IF, IHC (P, F), FACS, IP, ELISA, GS, Ctrl 00 500 µl MA5-14453 $255.00
Rat IgM Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Rat N/A IF, ICC, FACS, Ctrl 10 25 ug MA5-16278 $330.00
Rabbit IgG Isotype Control Rabbit N/A IHC (F), IHC (P), FACS, Ctrl 10 100 µg PA5-23090 $330.00
Rabbit IgG Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Rabbit N/A IHC (F), IHC (P), FACS, Ctrl 10 100 ug PA5-23092 $330.00
Rabbit IgG Isotype Control, PE conjugate Rabbit N/A FACS, Ctrl 10 100 ug PA5-23093 $330.00
Rabbit IgG Isotype Control Rabbit N/A IHC (F), IHC (P), FACS, Ctrl 10 100 µg PA5-23094 $330.00
Mouse IgG1, IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 10 50 TESTS PA5-33180 $360.00
Mouse IgG1, IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 50 TESTS PA5-33181 $360.00
Mouse IgG1, IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33182 $360.00
Mouse IgG1 + Rat IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate Mixed N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 50 TESTS PA5-33183 $360.00
Rat IgG2a + Rat IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 50 TESTS PA5-33184 $360.00
Rat IgG1 Isotype Control Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 1 mg PA5-33185 $390.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33189 $150.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33190 $345.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 1 mg PA5-33191 $390.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control, APC conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33192 $345.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Rat N/A IHC (F), FACS, Ctrl 10 100 ug PA5-33194 $150.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33195 $345.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33196 $210.00
Rat IgG2b Isotype Control Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 1 mg PA5-33197 $425.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33198 $145.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33199 $210.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 500 ug PA5-33201 $425.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33202 $210.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33203 $360.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33205 $185.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33207 $360.00
Rat IgG1 Isotype Control Rat N/A IHC (F), FACS, ELISA, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33209 $105.00
Rat IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33210 $380.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control Rat N/A IHC (F), FACS, ELISA, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33212 $105.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33213 $145.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 500 ug PA5-33214 $445.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33215 $130.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Rat N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33216 $145.00
Rat IgG2a Isotype Control Rat N/A IHC (F), FACS, ELISA, Ctrl 00 1 mg PA5-33217 $775.00
Hamster Armenian IgG Isotype Control Hamster N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 250 ug PA5-33219 $185.00
Hamster Armenian IgG Isotype Control Hamster N/A IF, IHC (F), FACS, Ctrl 00 500 ug PA5-33220 $445.00
Hamster Armenian IgG Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Hamster N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33221 $199.00
Hamster Armenian IgG Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Hamster N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33222 $210.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33223 $199.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33224 $165.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33225 $165.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33226 $345.00
Mouse IgG2b Isotype Control Mouse N/A IHC, IHC (F), IHC (P), FACS, RIA, Ctrl 00 1 mg PA5-33227 $775.00
Mouse IgM Isotype Control Mouse N/A IHC, IHC (F), IHC (P), FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33228 $199.00
Mouse IgM Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug PA5-33229 $145.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33236 $199.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, APC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33237 $185.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33239 $145.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 TESTS PA5-33240 $345.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 1 mg PA5-33241 $775.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12080 $130.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, Biotin conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12081 $155.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12082 $255.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 ug SA1-12182 $130.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12183 $155.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12186 $255.00
Mouse IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC/PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12208 $255.00
Mouse IgG2a, IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC, PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12209 $255.00
Mouse IgG1, IgG2a Isotype Control, FITC, PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12319 $255.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12320 $255.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/RPE/Cy5RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12475 $715.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, FITC/RPE/Cy5RPE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 50 Tests SA1-12476 $275.00
Mouse IgG2a, IgG2b Isotype Control, RPE-Cy5 conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12477 $275.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, Cy5-PE conjugate Mouse N/A FACS, Ctrl 00 100 Tests SA1-12479 $255.00
Mouse IgG1 Isotype Control Mouse N/A Ctrl 00 1 ml SA1-35641 $399.00
Rabbit IgG Isotype Control Rabbit N/A IHC (P), Ctrl 00 500 ul MA5-16384 $475.00
Rabbit IgG Isotype Control Rabbit N/A IHC (P), Ctrl 00 1 ml MA5-16385 $725.00
Product Specific Information
While not ideal for every experiment, isotype controls are very useful and even essential in many situations. The following are examples of such uses:

1. Proper adjustment of the cytometer. An isotype control generates a recognizable pattern that can be used for confirmation of a properly adjusted cytometer. 2. Help in evaluating unusual or unexpected staining patterns in specific antibody samples. If the same atypical staining occurs in both the isotype control and specific antibody sample, one can assume that the pattern is not related to the specific antibody. 3. Assessing the up or down regulation of a particular surface marker after an in-vitro manipulation. The isotype control is an effective tool for determining how much the manipulation alone might produce an increase in non-specific binding. 4. Provide valuable information when using samples that have poor viability and contain large amounts of cellular debris. Isotype controls allow for identification of non-specific staining resulting from these conditions. 5. Immunophentyping panels used in leukemia/lymphoma analyses. Isotype controls can give an indication of the sample purity before analysis of specific markers. 6. Evaluation of low density antigen expression when the positive population and negative population are not distinctly separated (common in leukemia/lymphoma immunophenotyping). An apparent positive population not seen in the isotype control can give the cytometrist confidence that the test population is specifically stained.
Product Images
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  • FACS using MA5-16276
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rat IgM Control Isotype Control [RTK2118] (MA5-16276)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rat IgM Control Isotype Control [RTK2118] (MA5-16276)

    Cell surface staining of NCCIT cells using 0.5 ug of SSEA-3 antibody. Green represents Rat IgM Control Isotype Control (Product # MA5-16276); red represents SSEA-3 antibody. PE-conjugated goat rat Ig secondary were used for this test (cells were not fixed for testing).
     
  • FACS using MA5-16278
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rat IgM Control Isotype Control [RTK2118], Biotin conjugate (MA5-16278)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rat IgM Control Isotype Control [RTK2118], Biotin conjugate (MA5-16278)

    Cell surface flow cytometric analysis of SSEA-3 on NCCIT cells using 0.5 ug of SSEA-3 antibody. Green histogram represents Rat IgM Control Isotype Control (Product # MA5-16278), red represents SSEA-3 antibody. PE-conjugated streptavidin secondary were used for this test (cells were not fixed for testing).
     
  • FACS using PA5-23090
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (PA5-23090)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (PA5-23090)

    Intracellular FACS analysis of mouse TLR6 polyclonal antibody (red), Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (Product # PA5-23090) (green), RAW cells alone (shaded). Two micrograms of antibodies were used. Goat anti-rabbit FITC was used as secondary.
     
  • FACS using PA5-23092
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control, FITC conjugate (PA5-23092)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control, FITC conjugate (PA5-23092)

    Flow analysis of TLR7 in Ramos cells using 2 ug of Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (Product # PA5-23092).  Shaded histogram represents FITC-conjugated rabbit IgG isotype control; red represents Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (Product # PA5-23092).
     
  • FACS using PA5-23093
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control, PE conjugate (PA5-23093)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control, PE conjugate (PA5-23093)

    Intracellular flow cytometric analysis of TLR7 in human PBMCs (monocytes) using 0.5 ug/10^6 cells of Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (Product # PA5-23093). The shaded histogram represents cells alone, green represents PE-conjugated rabbit IgG isotype control; red represents TLR7 antibody.
     
  • FACS using PA5-23094
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (PA5-23094)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (PA5-23094)

    Intracellular FACS analysis of mouse TLR 6 polyclonal antibody (Red peak), Rabbit IgG Control Isotype Control (Product # PA5-23094) (Green peak), RAW cells (Purple peak).Two micrograms of antibodies were used. Goat anti-rabbit FITC was used as secondary antibody.
     
  • FACS using PA5-33180
    Flow Cytometry with anti-Mouse IgG1, IgG1 Control Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate (PA5-33180)

    Flow Cytometry with anti-Mouse IgG1, IgG1 Control Isotype Control, FITC/RPE conjugate (PA5-33180)

    Flow cytometric analysis of mouse spleen with Rat anti Mouse CD4, Low Endotoxin
     
  • IHC using PA5-33194
    Immunohistochemistry with anti-Rat IgG2b Control Isotype Control, FITC conjugate (PA5-33194)

    Immunohistochemistry with anti-Rat IgG2b Control Isotype Control, FITC conjugate (PA5-33194)

    Immunohistochemical anaysis of Jurkat cells with Rabbit anti Human NNE polyclonal antibody
     
 
 

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